Educated in all of the same basic sciences as a medical doctor (MD), a naturopathic doctor uses the Western medical sciences as a foundation for diagnosis and treatment. Just like MDs, naturopathic physicians must pass rigorous professional board exams before they can be licensed by a state or jurisdiction. And, for at least the final two years of the medical program, naturopathic medical students intern in clinical settings under the close supervision of licensed professionals.
NDs, however, also study holistic approaches to therapy with a strong emphasis on disease prevention and promoting wellness. In addition to a standard medical curriculum, NDs are trained in clinical nutrition, homeopathic medicine, botanical medicine, psychology, physical medicine and counseling.
Many receive additional training in areas such as midwifery and acupuncture and Oriental medicine. Because NDs view natural remedies as complementary as well as primary, they cooperate with other medical professionals, referring patients to (and receiving patients from) conventional medical doctors, surgeons and other specialists when appropriate.
Naturopathic doctors are licensed or registered as health care providers in Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Oregon, Utah, Vermont, Washington and the U.S. territories of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Legal provisions allow the practice of naturopathic medicine in several other states. Naturopathic doctors are also recognized in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Nova Scotia and Saskatchewan.
Efforts to gain licensure elsewhere are currently under way. Forty-two states and territories in the United States have professional associations for naturopathic medicine. Canada has 11 provincial and territorial professional associations.
States that legally recognize naturopathic medicine (in blue):
All states and provinces with licensure laws require a resident course of at least four years and 4,100 hours of study from a college or university recognized by the Council on Naturopathic Medical Education (CNME). A copy of the CNME handbook is available in the Bastyr Library. To qualify for a license, applicants must satisfactorily pass the Naturopathic Physicians Licensing Examinations (NPLEX), which include basic sciences, diagnostic and therapeutic subjects and clinical sciences.
Applicants must satisfy all licensing requirements for the state or province to which they have applied. Please consult the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians' website for current information on U.S. licensing.
The American Association of Naturopathic Physicians, based in Washington, D.C., represents the interests of the profession of naturopathic medicine in the U.S.
The American Association of Naturopathic Physicians (AANP)
4435 Wisconsin Ave NW Suite 403
Washington, DC 20016
Toll-free: (866) 538-2267
Local: (202) 237-8150
Fax: (202) 237-8152
Other State Organizations
Many other states also have AANP affiliates and professional societies. Contact the appropriate association for your state for further information.
The Canadian Naturopathic Association (Association Canadienne de Naturopathie) is the professional association in Canada.
Canadian Association of Naturopathic Doctors (CAND)
20 Holly Street, Suite 200
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M4S 3B1
Local: (416) 496-8633
Toll-free: (800) 551-4381
Fax: (416) 496-8634
Other Canadian Provincial and Territorial Organizations
The British Columbia Naturopathic Association (BCNA)
Naturopathic medicine is a distinct system of primary health care that emphasizes prevention and the self-healing process through the use of natural therapies. While the roots of naturopathic medicine date back to the 1890s, naturopathic medicine has witnessed a rapid increase in public interest in recent years as a result of the growing consumer movement to solve the health care puzzle using prevention, wellness and respect for nature's inherent healing ability.
Naturopathic doctors (NDs) are primary care physicians who blend centuries-old knowledge and a philosophy that nature is the most effective healer with current research on health and human systems. They have attended a four-year naturopathic medical school, are clinically trained, and work in all aspects of family health — from pediatric to geriatric care. Most NDs provide primary care through office-based private practice, but a growing number are in clinic settings.
Naturopathic diagnosis focuses on identifying the underlying causes of disease, while naturopathic therapies are supported by research drawn from peer-reviewed journals from many disciplines, including naturopathic medicine, conventional medicine, European complementary medicine, clinical nutrition, phytotherapy, pharmacognosy, homeopathy, psychology and spirituality.
The therapeutic modalities used in naturopathic medicine (including physical manipulation, clinical nutrition, botanical medicine, homeopathy and hydrotherapy) integrate conventional, scientific and empirical methodology with the ancient laws of nature.
The underpinnings of naturopathic medical practice are found in the following six principles.
Naturopathic medicine recognizes the body's inherent ability to heal itself. Naturopathic physicians identify and remove obstacles to recovery to facilitate this healing ability in patients.
The naturopathic physician seeks to identify and remove the underlying causes of illness, rather than eliminate or merely suppress symptoms.
Naturopathic medicine follows three principles to avoid harming the patient:
Naturopathic physicians educate the patient and encourage self-responsibility for health. They also acknowledge the therapeutic value inherent in the doctor-patient relationship.
Naturopathic physicians treat each individual by taking into account physical, mental, emotional, genetic, environmental and social factors. Since total health also includes spiritual health, naturopathic physicians encourage individuals to pursue their personal spiritual path.
Naturopathic physicians emphasize disease prevention, assessment of risk factors and hereditary susceptibility to disease and making appropriate interventions to prevent illness. Naturopathic medicine strives to create a healthy world in which humanity may thrive.
Wellness follows the establishment and maintenance of optimum health and balance. Wellness is a state of being healthy, characterized by positive emotion, thought and action. Wellness is inherent in everyone, regardless of disease(s). If wellness is recognized and experienced by an individual, it will more quickly heal a given disease than direct treatment of the disease alone.
(The wellness principle was adopted by Bastyr University and added to the six principles.)